Similar to V. tricolor, but leaves grey-hairy and coarsely crenate with pinnatifid stipules. Flowers 1.5-2cm across, usually bright yellow but occasionally with the upper petals red-purple, summer. Balkan peninsula, in montane and sub-alpine grassland.
V. alba Besser. (V). Clump-forming with non-rooting, ascending stolons 5-15cm long. Leaves wintergreen, triangular-ovate to ovate, cordate, hairy or smooth. Flowers 1.5-2cm across, white, fragrant. Central and southern Europe. V.a. ssp. dehnhardtii, (syn. V. dehnhardtii) has violet flowers and sometimes lacks stolons. V.a. subsp. scotophylla (syn. subsp. tessala) has white flowers with violet spurs and extra deep green foliage.