spreading by slender rhizomes, in time up to 1m in spread. Stems ascending, sometimes sprawling or decumbent, 10-30cm long. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to triangular-ovate. Crenate-serrate, more or less sparsely hairy, shortly stalked or sessile, usually deep green. Flowers to 1cm across, bright blue, in paired racemes, summer to autumn. Europe, western Asia and Siberia, mainly in grassland and scrub. V.c. subsp. vindobonensis has yellow-green, incise-crenate to pinnatifid leaves and pale blue flowers, rarely pink or white. Eastern, central and southeastern Europe. An attractive species but too invasive for the rock garden.