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Sempervivum CULTIVARS

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Botanical Description

cultivars have been raised and given non-latin (i.e. fancy) names since 1950. Before the 1930s , both professional and amateur horticulturists gave little thought to the raising of new clones by hybridization. Until that time most hybrids had resulted from the five common species from Central European mountains, SS. arachnoideum, montanum, grandiflorum, tectorum and wulfenii. All these also hybridise in the wild. Between 1930 and 1939 a number of expeditions to Europe, Turkey and the Caucasus were made in search of new plants. The result was the discovery of seventeen new Sempervivum species as well as varieties or geographical forms of species already known. Specialist alpine plant nurserymen received plants from these new discoveries, which were in turn passed to amateur growers. One such person was Nicholas Moore of St Mary Cray, Orpington, Kent. He used many of these new species and various selected forms for hybridising work, resulting in many new and quite outstanding plants to which he gave unusual cultivar names. Later expeditions provided further diversity of plant material. More recently detailed hybridisation programmes have been devised using only the more distinct species. The late Dr Mark Smith of Bristol University led the work in this field and a number of resulting plants have been given cultivar names. One fine example of his work was S. arachnoideum X S. ruthenicum, now named S. 'Rosie'. With the increasing popularity of houseleeks during the last forty years nurserymen and amateurs have also been raising new cultivars. Many have resulted from chance seedlings selected for their attractive foliage. Britain and the U.S.A. have taken the lead in the production of new cultivars, but Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands have all produced fine examples.

In the following descriptions, small rosettes are up to 1.5cm across, medium ones are 1.5-5cm and large 5-13cm Leaf colour is based on the period when they are most colourful, usually the months of May and June. Flower colour is not stated because in most of the cultivars it is similar and not a sufficient characteristic to be used for identification. The colour range is quite small, pale pink to shades of red.

'Alcithoe' Large rosettes of pinkish-red with just a touch of green.

'Aldo Moro' A very attractive plant with subtle shades of green, orange and red.

'Alpha' Quite an old and well known cultivar. Crimson and green rosettes with hairy-tipped leaves. 'Cobweb Capers' is almost identical.

'Amanda' Deep purple-brown rosettes with long tapering leaf points.

'Ambergreen' Small compact rosettes of a pleasing green flushed light red and strongly ciliate.

'Apache' Downy rosettes that form close clumps, green turning to deep pink.

'Apple Blossom' Pale green pubescent rosettes flushed rich pink and with white cilia.

'Aross' Small rosettes with deep red, narrow leaves bearing tufts of white hairs on the tips. A very pretty, compact growing plant that retains a good colour throughout the summer.

'Arrowheads Red' This has quite small, smooth, reddish-brown rosettes on rather long, stout stolons.

'Ashes of Roses' This is a small, compact growing cultivar that has strong S, arachnoideum characters in its makeup. The rosettes are pleasingly suffused red in summer.

'Asteroid' A compact plant with smallish brown-red rosettes.

'Aymon Correvon' An old cultivar that is thought to have originated from the wild. Rosettes medium-sized and velvety, grey-green. When the new growth appears in spring the rosettes take on a most unusual shade of violet.

'Banyan' Small, thickly cobwebbed rosettes of a rather unusual shade of grey.

'Bedivere' Small, rounded rosettes of a dense character that retain a very good shade of red for most of the year.

'Belladonna' Attractive grey-green, pubescent rosettes highly tinted purple. Retains a good colour for most of the season.

'Bella Mead' Medium to large grey-green rosettes with tones of purple in the centres.

'Bellott's Pourpre' A colourful plant with very large dark purplish-red rosettes.

'Bennerbroek' Large mahogany-red, smooth-leaved rosettes. Retains a good winter colouring.

'Beta' One of the older cultivars, but still one of the best. Hairy compact rosettes, heavily flushed with red.

'Black Claret' Rosettes medium to large pale green at the base with a marbled flushing of red-black in summer.

'Black Prince' Dark purple, almost black rosettes with narrow leaves that are silvery ciliate. A striking plant that holds its colour well throughout the year. Unfortunately it is a weak grower and not easy to keep happy under cultivation.

'Black Velvet' Shapely rosettes of medium-size with pubescent, deep purple-black leaves in spring. Does not retain this colour throughout the whole summer.

'Blari' a neat grower with compact grey-green rosettes that take on a fine pink flush.

'Blue Boy' Not really "blue", but a good shade of bluish-grey. Forms a compact mounded cushion of fairly small rosettes.

'Blush' Pale green, medium-sized, shapely, pubescent rosettes with a good red flush in summer.

'Booth's Red' Medium-sized, glabrous-leaved rosettes of deep brown-red. A vigorous grower.

'Boromir' Medium to large rosettes of a pleasing blue-green heavily flushed crimson.

'Britta' Shapely bronze-green rosettes of good substance and medium-size.

'Brock' Very succulent, medium-sized rosettes of dark red-brown. A neat grower of merit.

'Bronco' Small green rosettes with very pointed leaves that are flushed heavily at the tips with deep purple. Retains a good colour throughout the summer.

'Bronze Pastel' Forms a fine compact clump of small incurved rosettes that are bronze-brown and ciliate. 'Nouveau Pastel' and 'Pastel' are very similar.

'Bronze Tower' Large rosettes with very succulent pubescent leaves of a good bronze-brown and shortly ciliate.

'Butterbur' Well-formed rosettes of short, thick, quite broad-leaves, the outer ones greenish-brown, the inner purplish-red.

'Cafe' Small flat rosettes of distinctive appearance, brownish-green with deep reddish markings.

'Canada Kate' Pale green pubescent and ciliate rosettes of a fine globular shape.

'Cancer' A compact growing plant with medium-sized apple green red-flushed rosettes.

'Candy Floss' A cultivar of strong S. arachnoideum parentage with very small rosettes forming tight clumps tinted red in summer.

'Carmen' Large rosettes of light green, heavily tipped brownish-red.

'Carnival' A very colourful plant with medium-sized, wide-leaved rosettes turning a brilliant deep red in summer.

'Cavo Doro' Closely-set, smallish rosettes of a dark brownish-purple with olive-green leaf bases.

'Celon' Large rosettes of a light brownish-red developing a coppery sheen.

'Cherry Frost' Small globular rosettes of a very neat compact habit, deep red with tufts of silvery-white hairs.

'Cherry Tart' One of the most outstanding cultivars. It has quite large rosettes with wide flat leaves, shiny and a beautiful shade of rich wine red for most of the year.

'Chocolate' A very fine cultivar that used to be considered a form of S. marmoreum. It does have quite a resemblance to that species, but there is a trace of hybrid parentage. Rosettes very dark chocolate and quite large, keeping a good colour for most of the year.

'Circlet' Small rosettes of compact habit with nice woolly hair covering the leaves.

'Clara Noyes' Small rosettes of slender reddish-pink, ciliate leaves.

'Clare' Soft velvety rosettes of brown-pink without any other markings and very uniform in appearance. Cultivars that are very similar in appearance include 'Lynns Choice' and 'Rubra Ash'.

'Cleveland Morgan' A decorative plant with short, semi-incurved, green downy leaves shading to a dusky red.

'Clipper' Small and compact rosettes of dark red-purple.

'Cobweb Capers' see under 'Alpha' 'Collage' Very flat open rosettes that grow quite large; grey-green flushed with pink and silvery ciliate.

'Collecteur Anchisi' A very unusual plant that looks like the S. grandiflorum but has deep red-violet flowers. Rosettes small and flattish with deep green, pubescent leaves with dark purple-red edging. This plant must be of hybrid origin, but it could easily be mistaken for a species.

'Commander Hay' This is an old cultivar that originated from the garden of the Earl of Morton. The parentage is believed to be S. tectorum var. tectorum forma giganteum X S. 'Ornatum'. Very large, flat rosettes richly flushed red on green. This colouring does not always persist after mid-summer. Many of the cultivars of more recent years that have some of the 'Commander Hay' parentage, exhibit very good deep colouring that does last throughout the year.

'Congo' Good dark red-black rosettes with wide, silvery ciliate leaves. Retains good colour for most of the year.

'Cornstone' Large rosettes of a fine purplish-red, tipped with green.

'Coronet' A distinctive cultivar having large, globular, olive-brown, white ciliate rosettes.

'Corsair' Grey-green rosettes that assume a deep claret red in summer. The pointed leaves are densely ciliate.

'Crimson Velvet' Very neat-growing plant forming clusters of rosettes that are crimson and velvety downy.

'Crispyn' A plant of merit. Medium-sized wine-red rosettes with white ciliate leaves. Well coloured for most of the year.

'Cupream' Known in cultivation before 1892 and probably discovered in the wild. Medium to large rosettes bronze-red in winter and copper flushed in summer.

'Dallas' Large-growing rosettes of glabrous brown leaves shaded red and green.

'Damask' Very large rosettes heavily tinted wine-red. A most distinct and attractive colouring.

'Dark Beauty' A flne cultivar with medium-sized blackish-red rosettes which retain their colour well.

'Dark Cloud' Large rosettes of a light mauve, overlayed with a tinge of grey.

'Darkie' Medium-sized, smooth-leaved rosettes of a dark purple-brown, particularly good in winter.

'Dark Point' Medium-sized, compact, rounded incurving leaved rosettes of red-brown with green tones.

'Director Jacobs' A lovely plant with large, symmetrical rosettes of a glowing deep red with silver cilia. Holds a good colour all the summer.

'Disco Dancer' Medium-sized rosettes with quite long spreading leaves of a bright red.

'Downland Queen' see under 'Smokey Jet'

'Duke of Windsor' Small, compact, silky white ciliate rosettes.

'Dusky' Dark green rosettes tinted with shades of brown and having purple-red tips.

'Dyke' A fine intense deep red cultivar. Rosettes medium to large and of compact habit.

'El Greco' This is similar to 'El Toro' but with rather larger rosettes having bronze-green leaf tips.

'El Toro' An attractive plant with large red and apple green rosettes in summer.

'Elvis' Maroon, silvery ciliate rosettes of good shape.

'Emerald Giant' A very large plant when grown in rich soil; emerald-green with just a slight flush of pink.

'Excalibur' Medium-size rosettes of light green with very fleshy leaves having brownish tips. The stolons are very long resulting in a rather open formation.

'Exhibita' Smallish, thickly-set, globular rosettes of a deep brown-maroon with green flushed tips.

'Exorna' A rather unusual cultivar with medium-sized sombre brown-green, very pubescent leaves.

'Fame' Very large pinkish-red rosettes of good substance and shape which in winter turn a subtle red-brown.

'Finerpointe' Medium-size rosettes composed of narrow, velvety, pinkish leaves having an attractive deeper rose flush.

'Flaming Heart' Medium-size rosettes of a light red with green leaf bases.

'Flanders Passion' Very large flat rosettes of a persistent deep wine red.

'Flasher' see under 'Glowing Embers'

'Ford's Amability' Small, flattish rosettes of a felted appearance, grey-green with a flush of pink and red.

'Ford's Shadows' Attractive cultivar having large, flat rosettes of glossy leaves, beautiful mahogany-red with a marbling of green.

'Ford's Spring' Small, flat-topped, compact rosettes that are hard to the touch. Leaves incurving, hairy and flushed red on the outer edges.

'Fuzzy Wuzzy' A curious cultivar of S. arachnoideum parentage. The rosettes are of a twisted shape. Outer leaves flushed pink and silvery-ciliate.

'Galahad' Large rosettes of a grey-purple. New growth in early summer can be a brighter glowing purple.

'Gamma' Medium-size hairy rosettes of olive green that change to a rich purplish-red in spring, but only holding this colour for a short time.

'Gay Jester' Large flattened rosettes, green with a fine flush of light red. A very vigorous grower that does tend to lose its colour in late summer.

'Gazelle' A very popular cultivar when seen at its best in spring. Rosettes multicoloured, yellow, pink, red and green but fading in summer, then looking identical to 'Jubilee'.

'Georgette' Compact hairy rosettes of green, turning to orange-red in spring and early summer.

'Ginnies Delight' Attractive cultivar with small, very compact rosettes of red and green having a covering of silver-white cobwebby hairs.

'Gloriosum' Medium to large rosettes of a reddish-brown taking on an extra fine red flush in late spring.

'Glowing Embers' Medium-sized rosettes with narrow, tapering leaves. Can be a deep glowing red during summer, although in some years the colour is disappointing. The cv. 'Flasher' appears to be identical.

'Granada' see under 'Rubin'

'Grapetone' A distinct cultivar with thin, pointed, purplish leaves. The rosettes are neat and compact but rather slow to develop and make clumps.

'Gray Dawn' Medium-size rosettes that are velvety and grey with just a touch of green and purple.

'Green Apple' A pleasing cultivar having medium to large rosettes of a clear apple green. It makes a nice contrast with the red cultivars.

'Green Gables' Small flattish, compact rosettes of pale green leaves covered with downy hairs.

'Greenwich Time' Upright, slightly pubescent-leaved rosettes of a pinkish-red with a touch of green. A rather distinct and pleasing cultivar, but very slow in producing offsets.

'Greyfriars' A colourful plant with small to medium size rosettes that are white ciliate. The basic colour is a deep pink-red with shades of grey throughout the year.

'Grey Ghost' Large matt grey-green, wide-leaved rosettes of a fine globular shape.

'Grey Lady' Medium-size rosettes a good shade of grey, flushed pink during the summer.

'Greyollo' Well-formed rosettes of medium-size composed of thick green-grey leaves.

'Hayling' Large, glossy-leaved rosettes looking much like an improved 'Commander Hay', being considerably deeper in colour throughout the year.

'Heigham Red' A strong-growing plant forming neat clumps of small hairy rosettes of a good orange-red.

'Hekla' Very large, open rosettes, the leaves are large and widely-set and of a pinkish-red colour.

'Hidde' Large, upright rosettes composed of long, tapering, ciliate leaves, green with a good flushing of red.

'Hiddes Roosje' Large smooth-leaved, globular rosettes of a red-brown.

'Hortulanus Smit' Very large glabrous-leaved rosettes of open habit, dark brown-red without any other markings. The cultivar 'Othello' is very similar in appearance.

'Hullabaloo' Small, very compact, bristly ciliate rosettes of a fine pinkish-grey.

'Icicle' An attractive cultivar with fairly small, red rosettes with long silvery cilia and tufts of hair at the tips.

'Imperial' Large, well-formed, open-leaved rosettes of matt grey-green with tints of mauve.

'Interlace' Compact, small grey-green, white ciliate rosettes of upright habit.

'lophon' Large well-shaped rosettes of a fine pinkish-brown with maroon tips.

'Irazu' A very attractive cultivar with grey-green, silvery-ciliate, violet-tinted leaves. The rosettes are quite small and produce offsets very freely.

'Itchen' Small to medium-sized, long ciliate rosettes of a nice shade of brown-red.

'Jack Frost' Green rosettes with the outer leaves flushed bronze-red and densely silvery ciliate. A very compact grower.

'Jelly Bean' Medium-size rosettes of many narrow reddish-brown leaves tinged with gold.

'Jet Stream' Small many-leaved rosettes of very compact habit, the leaves a pretty dark purplish-red with silver cilia.

'Jewel Case' Compact-growing, flattish white-ciliate rosettes of subtle tones of green and rose pink.

'Jolly Green Giant' Large apple green rosettes of nicely shaped, sharply pointed leaves.

'Jubilation' A neat-growing plant of medium-size rosettes formed of pointed, upright glowing red leaves.

'Jubilee' Hairy medium-size rosettes of a light green, developing a deep maroon flush in spring but changing back to green in late summer.

'Jubilee Tricolor' Pale green rosettes flushed with red, the new growth in spring bright yellow-cream. Unfortunately a rather weak and slow grower.

'Jungle Shadows' A distinctive cultivar with medium to large rosettes of a dark purple hue. The leaves at certain times of the year look as if they are brushed with white farina.

'Kalinda' A distinctive plant with large, well-formed, flattish rosettes of orange-brown with a flush of pink.

'Kelly Jo' Medium-size, open rosettes of a good substance. Leaves very dark green with brown tones, tipped purple-red.

'Kermit' Compact rosettes of medium-size with deep green, upright pointed leaves flushed red during summer.

'Kilt' Large, open rosettes that have the centre leaves glowing red shading to yellow-green on the outer surfaces.

'Kimble' Very large few-leaved rosettes of deep purplish-red with some brown shading.

'King George' A popular cultivar of very good strong constitution. In all characteristics it resembles cv. 'Jubilee', differing only in retaining the deep maroon-coloured rosettes for a much longer period.

'Kip' Small to medium sized, open-habited rosettes of a very distinctive dark purple-red, not unlike a large form of S. erythraeum. Rather slow-growing, only providing a small number of offsets annually.

'Kismet' Medium to large rosettes of deep grey-green with darker leaf tips. Retains a good winter colour.

'Kolagas Mayfair' Small, densely cobwebby rosettes similar to S. arachnoideum in appearance; green in winter turning to red in summer.

'Kramer's Spinrad' Much like a very large S. arachnoideum, flattish rosettes. A n attractive plant when seen in mid-summer.

'Kubi' Small, narrow, velvety-leaved rosettes of green and red. Somewhat like 'King George' but much less vigorous.

'Lady Kelly' Very large brownish-purple rosettes that take on a coppery sheen in summer.

'Lavender Old Lace' A lovely cultivar, although not always a hearty grower. The rosettes start off very small and slowly develop to medium-size, with soft rosy lavender and silvery ciliate leaves.

'Leneca' Medium to large rosettes of a deep uniform mauve-red.

'Lenniks Time' A fine cultivar with medium-sized, open-leaved rosettes of a beautiful red-brown with green tips and distinctive white cilia.

'Lentezon' Medium-size, light green, well-formed pubescent rosettes with thick leaves becoming red-flushed in late spring. Offsets are produced on long stolons. The cultivar 'Ronny' is very similar.

'Lou Bastidou' Very wide-leaved, large rosettes of a grey-green, delicately flushed pinkish-mauve.

'Lilac Time' Large grey-green rosettes with a beautiful pale lilac hue in mid-summer.

'Limelight' see under the species S. calcareum 'Lipstick' A very choice and beautiful cultivar, but slow-growing, only making a few offsets annually. Very thick-set rosettes of medium-size composed of shiny, bright glowing red leaves in summer, a dull green in winter.

'Lively Bug' A vigorous and very attractive plant of S. arachnoideum parentage. Rosettes quite large heavily covered with greyish-green wool and forming tight clumps.

'Lynns Choice' see under 'Clare'

'Magical' Medium-size green rosettes with ciliate leaves lightly blotched red.

'Magic Spell' Very similar to 'Magical', but the red blotching is far more intense.

'Maigret' Small rosettes of downy, narrow leaves which assume a fine bright red in spring.

'Majestic' A large-growing cultivar of the S. arachnoideum type. Well-formed, globular, white-hairy rosettes with a flush of light purple in summer.

'Malarbon' Medium-sized, incurved-leaved rosettes of upright habit, apple-green, pubescent and ciliate, flushed pink and a rose-red in spring.

'Marijntje' Smallish rosettes of thickly-set glowing brown-red leaves. Neat and attractive.

'Marmalade' As the name suggests, the leaves are the colour of dark marmalade with additional pink overtones. Rosettes medium-sized.

'Mate' Smallish densely-leaved rosettes of apple green with a flushing of pink.

'Mauna Kea' Medium to large-growing plant with red-brown rosettes having darkish tones in the centres.

'Meisse' Small compact-growing rosettes of a flat habit, red-brown and ciliate.

'Mercury' A cultivar of merit. Medium-size rosettes of brown, flushed with orange-red. Very good colour throughout spring and summer, but winter colour drab brown.

'Merlin' Large bronze-green rosettes that change to green in winter.

'Moerkerks Merit' Globular, cobwebbed rosettes with fine tints of pink. Rosettes can grow to a medium-size, always form good, vigorous cushions.

'Mount Hood' Very large open-leaved, flattish rosettes of fine form, the leaves wide and shapely, pinkish-red with shades of purple and grey.

'Night Raven' Large deep green rosettes that are usually blotched with blackish-purple in summer.

'Noir' Medium-size rosettes stained heavily with deep maroon-purple, the leaf tips even darker.

'Nouveau Pastel' see under 'Bronze Pastel'

'Oddity' An unusual form with tubular leaves, the rosettes like sea urchins. Not a reliable plant to grow as it tends to revert back to the typical S. tectorum. Best grown with protection from winter wet as it is prone to rot.

'Ohio Burgundy' A fine cultivar with large, compact, symmetrical, pubescent rosettes of bright orange-red. 'Granada' is very similar.

'Olivette' Large globular rosettes of fine olive-green. A symmetrical growing plant of strong constitution.

'Omega' Rather similar to 'Hayling' with large, glossy deep red leaves.

'Omicron' Large rosettes of a beautiful shade of glowing red with green margins. This cultivar has outstanding colouring but is not a strong grower.

'Ornatum' This old cultivar has been rather superseded by many of the large red-leaved cultivars. The rosettes are quite large, ruby-red with green tips, but fading around mid-summer.

'Packardian' A large and very handsome cultivar with pubescent-leaved rosettes of pink and orange-bronze.

'Painted Lady' Compact, narrow-leaved rosettes of a light green with orange-red tints.

'Pahssander' A large bronze-red cultivar with long-ciliate tapered leaves bearing tufts of hair on the tips.

'Patrician' A fine cultivar of a rather unusual shade of bright orange-red. A compact growing plant formed of medium-sized rosettes.

'Pastel' see 'Bronze Pastel'

'Pink Cloud' Quite large, globular, cobwebby rosettes with a flushing of pink in summer.

'Pink Dawn' see 'Regina' 'Pink Lemonade' Medium-size greenish-yellow rosettes which take on a pinkish flush during summer.

'Pink Puff Small to medium-size rosettes that are flattish, compact and hairy, grey-green with a touch of pink. The offsets are produced on very long stolons.

'Pippin' A fine cultivar having medium-size, symmetrical, many-leaved rosettes of a dark brownish-red which deepen further during winter. Not a very vigorous plant, only making a few new offsets each year.

'Pixie' Very tiny, clustering rosettes that form a domed cushion. Leaves hairy and green with brownish-red flushing during summer.

'Pekinese' An interesting cultivar of neat habit with pale green leaves flushed pink and covered with a white cobweb. The plant produces many offsets. Although the parentage is not known it could be S. arachnoideum by S. atlanticum.

'Petersen's Ornatum' This cultivar resembles cv. 'Ornatum', but the rosettes are a violet-red.

'Plum Rose' Large open-leaved rosettes of a dark plum-red, retains colour very well in summer.

'Pluto' Medium to large rosettes that are flattish or semi-globular composed of thick, wide leaves first flushed purple then changing to grey-green by late summer.

'Poke Eat' An attractive plant with very hairy, compact rosettes of a pleasing pinkish-red. Very tolerant of winter wet.

'Polaris' Upright, pointed-leaved rosettes of compact habit, green in winter, bright red in early summer.

'President Arsac' Medium-size rosettes composed of rather thin narrow leaves of a bright brownish-red in early summer. Not a very strong-growing plant.

'Proud Zelda' A rather unusual cultivar with quite sombre colouring and yet attractive in its own way. Medium-size rosettes of brown leaves with bristly cilia and fine pubescence.

'Pumaros' A most distinctive and choice cultivar with very compact small rosettes composed of upright pointed leaves of a dark brown-red tipped with distinct hairs.

'Purple King' Large rosettes of very dark purplish-red. This is a first class cultivar that looks good at all seasons of the year.

'Purple Passion' A neat-growling plant with small tightly-packed rosettes formed of deep purple-red, ciliate leaves.

'Raspberry Ice' Smallish rosettes covered with silky-hair and flushed pink. A n attractive plant but rather slow in producing offsets and resenting winter damp.

'Red Ace' Small, quite soft, narrow, open-leaved rosettes of a very fine bright red colour with the addition of silver.

'Red Beam' A compact-growing cultivar with medium-size rosettes that are well suffused with mahogany-red in summer but plain green in winter.

'Red Delta' A good cultivar with medium-size compact rosettes formed of silvery-ciliate, hairy leaves which retain a nice shade of red during most of the summer.

'Red Devil' Medium-sized rosettes of a glowing red retained for most of the year. A n exceptionally well-coloured cultivar.

'Red Flush' see S. tectorum 'Red Flush'

'Red Mountain' This cultivar is mainly of S. montanum parentage, having also traces of S. arachnoideum. It was for many years known as S. montanum 'Rubrum'. The medium-size rosettes are green in winter, becoming mahogany-red during late spring and early summer.

'Red Planet' Flattish rosettes of a large-size with glossy red, green-edged leaves. Very attractive, although similar to 'Hayling' and 'Rouge'.

'Red Pluche' Small, hairy-leaved rosettes that are bright red in spring, fading to green in the summer.

'Red Rum' A splendid cultivar that is not dissimilar to 'Red Devil' but rather more orange-red.

'Red Shadows' Large rosettes of upright pointing leaves of a dark red with lighter shading at the tips.

'Red Wings' Medium-size rosettes of grey-green well flushed deep red. The leaves are long ciliate and bear tufts of hair on tips.

'Regina' (syn. 'Pink Dawn) Thickly-set rosettes of medium-size, a good pinkish-red with attractive bristly cilia.

'Reginald Malby' An old cultivar, formerly known as 'Malby's Hybrid', but still a fine plant, with rosettes of medium-size, flattish and mahogany-red in summer.

'Remus' Waterlily-like rosettes that are small to medium-size with narrow leaves of a maroon and green.

'Rita Jane' Large, well-formed, very thick-leaved grey-green rosettes with tiny dark leaf-tips.

'Ronny' see 'Lentezon'

'Rosie' This cultivar resulted from an experimental crossing of S. ruthenicum with S. arachnoideum. Rosettes medium-sized, globular becoming flushed with pink in spring. In appearance it seems to owe nothing to S. arachnoideum.

'Rotmantel' Large, open rosettes of light orange-brown with a slight shading of red and pink. Good around mid-summer.

'Rouge' see 'Red Planet'

'Round Robin' Very compact, rounded rosettes with quite short bristly ciliate leaves of bright pink.

'Royal Flush' Medium to large rosettes with pubescent leaves that are reddened in the lower half, the remainder green.

'Royal Mail' Large rosettes of flat habit with glossy, carmine-red leaves.

'Royal Opera' Medium-size rosettes of compact habit having many leaves flushed brilliant red flush with cilia. Very nice spring colouring.

'Royal Ruby' Rather small rosettes with narrow strap-like leaves of a deep glowing red. Not always a strong-growing cultivar.

'Royanum' see S. tectorum 'Royanum'

'Rubin' Flat rosettes of medium-size with a fine reddish-bronze hue. The cultivar 'Granat' looks identical.

'Rubikon Improved' Small flat-topped rosettes of thickly-set, squat, ruby-red leaves. A most distinctive cultivar that retains good colour throughout the year, but very slow in producing offsets. 'Rubikon' is indistinguishable.

'Rubra Ash' see under 'Clare'

'Rubra Ray' Medium to large sized rosettes with richly coloured red fleshy leaves.

'Ruby Heart' This cultivar is somewhat like 'Ornatum' but has only a small patch of ruby-red in the centre of each rosette.

'Rusty' Large rosettes of a rusty-brown with good autumn and winter colouring.

'Saga' Large, open-leaved rosettes of a dark red with additional grey-purple mottling.

'Sassy Frass' Small to medium-size rosettes of a very uniform light brown with an orange sheen around mid-summer.

'Saturn' Medium-sized, flattish, loose rosettes of velvety leaves which are grey-green, but becoming suffused with orange-red in summer.

'Seminole' Medium to large rosettes with wide, succulent, incurved pubescent leaves which are grey-green with tints of purple-brown.

'Sharon's Pencil' Olive-green rosettes of medium size, the leaves narrow and upright with sharp, dark points.

'Shirley's Joy' Rosettes of medium size with long silvery hair providing an icy appearance. Does not tolerate damp winter conditions.

'Silver Jubilee' Small rosettes of a pleasing silvery grey well-clad with interwoven cobwebby hairs.

'Silver Thaw' Small, very silky-hairy rosettes that become flushed with a pretty pink in summer.

'Sioux' Very well-formed globular rosettes of a medium-size, glowing orange-red with pink flushing on upper parts of leaves. A strong grower, producing abundant offsets and particularly colourful in spring.

'Skrocki's Bronze' A fine cultivar with plump rosettes composed of thick fleshy, deep, bronzy rose-red leaves. Rather slow to produce new rosettes.

'Smokey Jet' Velvety leaved, globular rosettes of medium-size, grey-green with a flush of pink. 'Downland Queen' appears to be identical.

'Spanish Dancer' Medium to large rosettes, made up of comparatively few leaves, apple green, becoming flushed with bronzy-red in summer.

'Spherette' Very compact, small, flat rosettes of pinkish brown. The glabrous leaves are ciliate.

'Spice' A pleasing cultivar with large rosettes of velvety appearance. The leaves are green, but take on a beautiful shade of maroon. Rather slow to produce new rosettes.

'Spode' A compact-growing plant with small rosettes that are highly flushed with red.

'Sprite' Small silvery-hairy rosettes of S. arachnoideum type, green turning to pinkish-red in summer.

'Starshine' Medium-size rosettes of erect olive-brown leaves, becoming shaded in summer with a pinkish-red.

'State Fair' Large grey-green, smooth-leaved rosettes of a good rounded shape. In spring the leaves take on tints of lilac.

'Strider' A fine cultivar with large glabrous rosettes that have tapered leaf tips. Attractive blood-red with just a hint of brown. Rather slow to multiply.

'Stuffed Olive' Medium to large olive-green rosettes of a good shape, the leaves with smooth red bases. Fine colouring in late summer.

'Sunkist' Small pubescent-leaved rosettes of a pleasing apple green with reddish-pink flushing in summer.

'Sunset' see under S. tectorum

'Sun Waves' Compact rosettes of medium-size, light chocolate brown with tints of orange in summer.

'Superama' Large, flattish purple-green rosettes with an attractive red flush in the centres. Distinct silvery marginal hairs provide a frosted appearance.

'Syston Flame' Compact rosettes of medium-size with bronze-red leaves, green at the base.

'Tarn Hows' Large smooth-leaved rosettes of a dark violet-red. Very fine colouring throughout the summer.

'Teck' Large, bronze-green rosettes of S. tectorum type.

'Tina' Small flat-growing rosettes forming a close mat, the leaves flushed with red.

'Titania' Densely-leaved rosettes of medium-size, the velvety leaves green with brown shading and red tips. Offsets are produced on long stolons.

'Tordeur's Memory' Densely-leaved rosettes of chestnut-brown with white cilia. Medium-size rosettes of a fine character.

'Traci Su' Beautiful velvety-leaved rosettes of medium size, grey-green with a flush of bronze and pink.

Tristam' Medium to large red-brown rosettes which are flat-growing and glossy.

'Triste' see S. tectorum 'Triste'

'Tristesse' Flat rosettes of good substance and rather unusual colouring; dark brown with very pronounced black tips.

'Vanbaelen' Large, wide open deep red rosettes with pink flushing towards the tips.

'Video' Large rosettes of smooth leaves, grey-green with red flushing in the centres.

'Virgil' Medium-sized rosettes of an unusual shade of bluish-purple. A good compact-growing plant that keeps its colour well.

'Webby Flame' Small rosettes of the S. arachnoideum type with interwoven hair. The rosettes turn bright red in spring, fading to green in summer.

'Webbyola' This is virtually a white cobwebbed S. arachnoideum. Small rosettes of flat habit, well-covered with interwoven hair.

'Wendy' Small, velvety rosettes with bristle-like cilia. A very succulent grey-green plant shading to a pinkish-red in summer.

'Westerlin' Large, smooth-leaved rosettes, a nice shade of red in winter changing to red and green during summer.

'Whitening' Small to medium-size rosettes of a pale grey-green with tufts of white hairs giving a frosted appearance.

'Zackenkrone' An attractive cultivar with short-leaved, symmetrical rosettes of medium-size. Quite a distinct colouring; dark purple leaf bases shading to greenish-gold tips.

'Zone' Small to medium-size rosettes that are heavily covered with tufted hairs. In spring and early summer they become heavily flushed with deep red.

'Zulu' Large rosettes with dark reddish-brown leaves, changing in summer to light brown with a tint of orange.