Lastrea filix-mas). Similar to D. affinis, but with less densely bipinnate leaves, having pale brown scales on the stalks, usually deciduous but sometimes semi-evergreen especially in mild winters. Europe to temperate Asia, south to Madeira, Morocco, Madagascar, Java, Hawaii and parts of South America, usually in woods, rocks, screes and banks. D.f-m. 'Crispa Cristata' is 30cm or more high with neatly crisped and crested leaves. 'Crispa Angustata Cristata' is only 15-18cm tall, each leaf with a large apical crest. 'Linearis Congesta' grows 20-25cm high, the leaves composed of densely packed very slender pinnae; neat and attractive.